Chào mừng các bạn đến với IELTS Thanh Loan. Chủ đề mà chúng ta sẽ khám phá trong blog này đó là Family (Gia đình) – một lĩnh vực rộng và thú vị mà không chỉ là nguồn cảm hứng sáng tạo mà còn là một khía cạnh quan trọng của văn hóa và đời sống. IELTS Thanh Loan hi vọng rằng blog này sẽ là nguồn hỗ trợ và động lực cho các bạn trong quá trình chuẩn bị cho kỳ thi IELTS.
Các loại gia đình và thành viên trong gia đình – Family structures & family members
1, immediate family (noun phrase) /ɪˈmiːdiət ˈfæməli/
- Định nghĩa: your closest relations, such as your parents, children, husband, or wife
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình với những người thân nhất
- Ví dụ: He was the first member of his immediate family to attend university.
2, extended family (noun phrase) /ɪkˌsten.dɪd ˈfæm.əl.i/
- Định nghĩa: a family unit that includes grandmothers, grandfathers, aunts, and uncles, etc. in addition to parents and children
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình nhiều thế hệ
- Ví dụ: The extended family structure is no longer as strong as it once was
3, nuclear family (noun phrase) /ˌnjuː.klɪə ˈfæm.əl.i/
- Định nghĩa: a family consisting of two parents and their children, but not including aunts, uncles, grandparents, etc.
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình hạt nhân
- Ví dụ: One undeniable change in Vietnamese families nowadays is the shift from extended families to nuclear families.
4, single-parent family (noun phrase) /ˈsɪŋ.ɡəl.peə.rənt ˈfæm.əl.i/
- Định nghĩa: a family that includes either a mother or a father but not both
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: một gia đình chỉ có bố (hoặc mẹ)
- Ví dụ: Being from a poor, single-parent family didn’t stop him excelling academically.
5, childless family (noun phrase) /ˈʧaɪldləs ˈfæmɪli/
- Định nghĩa: involves a couple that does not have children
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình không có con
- Ví dụ: Childless family can feel excluded from the rest of society.
6, stepfamily (noun phrase) /ˈstepˌfæm.əl.i/
- Định nghĩa: a family that is formed by two people and the child or children of one or both of them from a previous relationship
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình có cha hoặc mẹ kế
- Ví dụ: With one in three marriages ending in divorce, there are around 650,000 stepfamilies in Britain.
7, blended family (noun phrase) /ˌblen.dɪd ˈfæm.əl.i/
- Định nghĩa: a family that consists of two adults, the child or children that they have had together, and one or more children that they have had with previous partners
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình hỗn hợp (cả con riêng và con chung)
- Ví dụ: Single-parent families and blended families now outnumber traditional families.
8, grandparent family (noun phrase) /ˈɡrænpeərənt ˈfæmɪli/
- Định nghĩa: a family where the children are brought up by the grandparents
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình con cái được nuôi dưỡng bởi ông bà
- Ví dụ: In many cities over the world, grandparent family gains popularity.
9, dysfunctional family (noun phrase) /dɪsˈfʌŋk.ʃən.əl ˈfæm.əl.i/
- Định nghĩa: a family in which conflict, misbehavior, and often child neglect or abuse and sometimes even all of the above on the part of individual parents occur continuously and regularly, leading other members to accommodate such actions
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình không êm ấm (các thành viên trong gia đình không yêu thương nhau, hay tranh chấp, cãi vã…)
- Ví dụ: The celebrity wrote a book about this dysfunctional family.
10, loving family = close-knit family (noun phrase) /ˌkləʊsˈnɪt ˈfæm.əl./
- Định nghĩa: a group of people who are related to each other, such as a mother, a father
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình êm ấm
- Ví dụ: I was raised in a very loving family, in which everyone helped each other.
11, foster family (noun phrase) /ˈfɒstə ˈfæmɪli/
- Định nghĩa: children living with guardians who are neither their natural nor their adoptive parents
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình có con nuôi
- Ví dụ: The Browns are a foster family providing love and support to children in need of a safe home.
12, communal family (noun phrase) /ˈkɒmjənəl ˈfæmɪli /
- Định nghĩa: a group of people, small or large, who live together and share possessions, wealth and responsibilities for each other, for the children in the commune, and for the residence they live in
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: một nhóm các gia đình sống cùng nhau và cùng chia sẻ trách nhiệm
- Ví dụ: The Smiths, a close-knit group of siblings and their families, live together in a large house, sharing responsibilities and resources in a communal family arrangement.
13, broken home (noun phrase) /ˈbrəʊkən həʊm/
- Định nghĩa: a family in which the parents are divorced or separated
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình tan vỡ
- Ví dụ: She comes from a broken home.
14, blue blood (noun) /ˌbluː ˈblʌd/
- Định nghĩa: the fact of someone having been born into a family that belongs to the highest social class
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: dòng dõi hoàng tộc
- Ví dụ: As to their blue blood, many of them are ex-dockyard apprentices.
15, distant relative (noun phrase) /ˈdɪstənt ˈrɛlətɪv/
- Định nghĩa: a person who is related to you by a long series of connections can be called a Distant relative
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: họ hàng xa
- Ví dụ: She herself had been fortunate; a rather distant relative had asked her out for the day.
16, next of kin (noun phrase) /nɛkst ɒv kɪn/
- Định nghĩa: your closest relation or relations
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: người thân gần nhất
- Ví dụ: We can’t release his name until we have informed his next of kin.
Gợi ý sách liên quan
Từ vựng chất và ý tưởng hay theo chủ đề cho bài thi IELTS Speaking
Với các vấn đề còn lại, hãy tham khảo cuốn sách này được biên soạn bởi đội ngũ IELTS Thanh Loan để không bao giờ bí ý, bí từ khi luyện tập và thực hiện bài thi IELTS Speaking.
Vai trò của các thành viên trong gia đình – Family roles
1, working parents (noun phrase) /ˈwɜːkɪŋ ˈpeərənts /
- Định nghĩa: a parent who has a job and takes care of his or her children
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: bố mẹ vừa đi làm vừa chăm con
- Ví dụ: Children of working parents often have large amounts of unsupervised time.
2, stay-at-home father ~ full-time father (noun phrase) /ˈsteɪ ət həʊm ˈfɑːðə ~ fʊl-taɪm ˈfɑːðə/
- Định nghĩa: a father who is the main caregiver of the children and is generally the homemaker of the household
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: những ông bố ở nhà (chăm con, lo việc nhà)
- Ví dụ: My dad is a stay-at-home father who takes care of my younger brother at home, while also handles housekeeping
3, breadwinner (noun phrase) /ˈbredˌwɪn.ər/
- Định nghĩa: the member of a family who earns the money that the family needs
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: người trụ cột gia đình
- Ví dụ: Men are often expected to be the breadwinner in a family
4, homemaker (noun phrase) /ˈhəʊmˌmeɪ.kər/
- Định nghĩa: a person who manages a home and often raises children instead of earning money from a job
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: người nội trợ
- Ví dụ: My friend was a homemaker with two small children
5, family tree (noun phrase) /ˌfæm.əl.i ˈtriː/
- Định nghĩa: a drawing that shows the relationships between the different members of a family, especially over a long period of time
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia phả
- Ví dụ: These relations are best described by means of a family tree.
6, single mother/ father (noun phrase) /ˈsɪŋɡəl ˈmʌðə/ ˈfɑː.ðər/
- Định nghĩa: a mother/father who has a dependent child or dependent children and who is widowed , divorced
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: bố/mẹ đơn thân
- Ví dụ: Alexandra was a single mom of Puerto Rican descent who grew up in Washington Heights
7, grant joint custody (verb phrase) /ɡrɑːnt ʤɔɪnt ˈkʌstədi/
- Định nghĩa: the exhusband and ex-wife share the responsibility
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: vợ chồng cùng chia sẻ quyền nuôi con
- Ví dụ: The court granted joint custody of their 10-year-old son, allowing both parents to have equal rights and responsibilities in his upbringing and decision-making.
8, grant sole custody (verb phrase) /ɡrɑːnt səʊl ˈkʌstədi/
- Định nghĩa: a child custody arrangement whereby only one parent has custody of a child
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: chỉ vợ hoặc chồng có quyền nuôi con
- Ví dụ: Sally was granted sole custody of children from her first marriage.
Nuôi dạy con cái – Childcare
1, give birth to sb (collocation) /ɡɪv bɜːθ tuː ˈsʌmbədi/
- Định nghĩa: to have a child
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: sinh con
- Ví dụ: Patsy was celebrating last night after giving birth to twins.
2, bring somebody up ~ raise (phrasal verb) /brɪŋ ʌp ~ reɪz/
- Định nghĩa: to care for a child until they are an adult, often giving them particular beliefs
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: nuôi nấng
- Ví dụ: They brought her up to be a Catholic.
3, grow up (phrasal verb) /ɡrəʊ ʌp/
- Định nghĩa: to gradually become an adult
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: lớn lên, phát triển
- Ví dụ: Taking responsibility for yourself is part of the process of growing up.
4, take care of (phrasal verb) /teɪk keər ɒv /
- Định nghĩa: to protect someone or something and provide the things that that person or thing needs
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: chăm sóc
- Ví dụ: She made good money and knew she would be able to take care of a child on her own.
5, spoon-feed (verb) /ˈspuːn.fiːd/
- Định nghĩa: to feed a baby or other person using a spoon
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: bón cho trẻ ăn
- Ví dụ: The zookeepers were spoon-feeding the baby chimpanzees.
6, to pamper (verb) /ˈpæm.pər/
- Định nghĩa: to give someone special treatment, making that person as comfortable as possible and giving them whatever they want
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: nuông chiều
- Ví dụ: Why not pamper yourself after a hard day with a hot bath scented with oils?
7, overprotective parents (noun phrase) /ˌəʊvəprəˈtɛktɪv ˈpeərənts /
- Định nghĩa: parents who want to protect someone too much
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: bố mẹ bảo vệ quá mức
- Ví dụ: The children of overprotective parents can suffer from mental issues.
8, indulgence (n) /ɪnˈdʌl.dʒəns/
- Định nghĩa: an occasion when you allow someone or yourself to have something enjoyable, especially more than is good for you
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: sự nuông chiều
- Ví dụ: All the pleasures and indulgences of the weekend are over, and I must get down to some serious hard work
9, upbringing (n) /ˈʌpˌbrɪŋ.ɪŋ/
- Định nghĩa: the way in which you are treated and educated when young, especially by your parents, especially in relation to the effect that this has on how you behave and make moral decisions
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: sự nuôi dạy
- Ví dụ: Is it right to say all the crimes he committed were simply the result of his upbringing?
10, discipline (verb) /ˈdɪs.ə.plɪn/
- Định nghĩa: to punish someone
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: kỷ luật, phạt
- Ví dụ: I’m trying to discipline myself to eat less chocolate.
11, childminding (noun phrase) /ˈtʃaɪldˌmaɪn.dɪŋ/
- Định nghĩa: the job of a person who takes care of other people’s children in his or her own home
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: việc giữ trẻ
- Ví dụ: She ran her childminding business from her home.
12, child support (verb phrase) / ʧaɪld səˈpɔːt/
- Định nghĩa: money that someone gives the mother or father of their children when they do not live with the children
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: tiền nuôi con
- Ví dụ: At this time, you cannot responsibly tell your client to pay $300 in child support.
13, motherhood/ fatherhood (noun) //ˈmʌð.ə.hʊd/ /ˈfɑː.ðə.hʊd/
- Định nghĩa: the state or time of being a mother/father
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: việc làm mẹ/cha
- Ví dụ: Fatherhood is a lifelong responsibility.
14, parental supervision (noun phrase) /pəˈrɛntəl ˌsuːpəˈvɪʒən/
- Định nghĩa: is a parenting technique that involves looking after, or monitoring a child’s activities.
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: sự giám sát của cha mẹ
- Ví dụ: Without parental control, parental supervision can’t have any effect other than just identifying the problems in children.
15, parental guidance (noun phrase) /pəˈrɛntəl ˈɡaɪdəns/
- Định nghĩa: giving help and support to parents regarding issues
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: sự hướng dẫn của cha mẹ
- Ví dụ: Parental guidance is the advice and support that our parents give us.
16, adopt (verb) /əˈdɒpt/
- Định nghĩa: to legally take another person’s child into your own family and take care of him or her as your own child
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: nhận nuôi
- Ví dụ: They have no children of their own, but they’re hoping to adopt.
17, spoilt child (noun phrase) /spɔɪlt ʧaɪld/
- Định nghĩa: A spoiled child is allowed to do or have anything that they want, usually so that they behave badly and do not show respect to other people
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: đứa trẻ hư hỏng
- Ví dụ: You’re behaving like a spoiled child!
Gợi ý sách liên quan
Từ vựng chất và ý tưởng hay theo chủ đề cho bài thi IELTS Writing
Với các chủ đề nhỏ còn lại, hãy tham khảo cuốn sách này được biên soạn bởi đội ngũ IELTS Thanh Loan để không bao giờ bí ý, bí từ khi viết bài.
Mối quan hệ trong gia đình – Family dynamics
1, generation gap (noun) /dʒen.əˈreɪ.ʃən ˌɡæp/
- Định nghĩa: a situation in which older and younger people do not understand each other because of their different experiences, opinions, habits, and behavior
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: khoảng cách thế hệ
- Ví dụ: She’s a young politician who manages to bridge/cross (= understand both groups in) the generation gap.
2, domestic conflict (noun phrase) /dəʊˈmɛstɪk ˈkɒnflɪkt /
- Định nghĩa: the situation in which someone you live with somebody and have an argument with them
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: mâu thuẫn gia đình
- Ví dụ: Sara and her husband Mark argue over the division of household chores, leading to a domestic conflict.
3, blood relative (noun) /ˌblʌd ˈrel.ə.tɪv/
- Định nghĩa: someone who is related to you by birth rather than through marriage or another relationship such as adoption
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: người có quan hệ ruột thịt
- Ví dụ: He tested 23 of his patients and 87 of their blood relatives for antibodies.
4, carefree childhood (noun) /ˈkeəfriː ˈʧaɪldhʊd/
- Định nghĩa: A carefree person or period of time doesn’t have or involve any problems, or worries in their childhood
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: tuổi thơ êm đềm
- Ví dụ: She had a carefree childhood, growing up in a close-knit family.
5, family breakdown (noun phrase) /ˈfæmɪli ˈbreɪkˌdaʊn/
- Định nghĩa: a break in the traditional structure of the family, nuclear or extended
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: gia đình đổ vỡ
- Ví dụ: After years of strained relationships and unresolved conflicts, Johnson experiences a family breakdown
6, sibling (noun) /ˈsɪb.lɪŋ/
- Định nghĩa: a brother or sister
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: anh chị em ruột
- Ví dụ: I have four siblings: three brothers and a sister.
7, sibling rivalry (noun) /ˈsɪblɪŋ ˈraɪvəlri /
- Định nghĩa: competition and arguments among brothers and sisters
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: sự mâu thuẫn anh chị em
- Ví dụ: There was great sibling rivalry (= competition) between Peter and his brother.
8, divorce (noun) /dɪˈvɔːs/
- Định nghĩa: an official or legal process to end a marriage
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: ly hôn
- Ví dụ: The last I heard they were getting a divorce.
9, to loosen/ tighten family bonds/ relationship (collocation) /ˈluːsən/ ˈtaɪtən ˈfæmɪli bɒndz/ rɪˈleɪʃənʃɪp/
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: làm xa cách/ gắn chặt các mối quan hệ trong gia đình
- Ví dụ: After going through a difficult period together, the Robinson family tightens their bonds by regularly communicating, supporting each other, and spending quality time together.
10, to get on well with (phrasal verb) /tuː ɡɛt ɒn wɛl wɪð /
- Định nghĩa: have a good relationship
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: có mối quan hệ tốt
- Ví dụ: Sarah gets on well with her new coworkers, as she easily builds rapport and maintains positive relationships with them.
11, to get along with (phrasal verb) /tuː ɡɛt əˈlɒŋ wɪð/
- Định nghĩa: f two or more people get along, they like each other and are friendly to each other
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: hoà thuận
- Ví dụ: John gets along with his neighbors, as he is friendly, helpful, and always willing to lend a hand when needed.
12, have sth in common (phrase) /hæv ɪn ˈkɒmən/
- Định nghĩa: to share interests, experiences, or other characteristics with someone or something
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: có điểm chung
- Ví dụ: The two actors have little in common other than both having Oscars.
13, fall out with sb = quarrel with (phrasal verb) /fɔːl aʊt wɪð = ˈkwɒrəl wɪð/
- Định nghĩa: an angry disagreement between two or more people or groups
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: tranh cãi với
- Ví dụ: She quarreled with everyone in the village.
14, drift apart (phrasal verb) /drɪft əˈpɑːt /
- Định nghĩa: If two people drift apart, they gradually become less friendly and their relationship ends
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: dần xa cách
- Ví dụ: We were great friends at school but drifted apart when we went to different universities.
15, take after sb (phrasal verb) /teɪk ˈɑːftə/
- Định nghĩa: to be similar to an older member of your family in appearance or character
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: giống ai
- Ví dụ: He takes after his mother/his mother’s side of the family.
16, family gathering (noun phrase) /ˈfæmɪli ˈɡæðərɪŋ/
- Định nghĩa: an event where members of a family come together to celebrate a special occasion, connect with one another, and spend quality time together
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: buổi tụ họp gia đình
- Ví dụ: I arrived at the annual family gathering.
Thành ngữ chủ đề gia đình – Idioms about family
1, Like father, like son
- Định nghĩa: children often appear and act just like their parents.
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: cha nào con nấy
- Ví dụ: Jack looks like his father a lot. Like father, like son!
2, An apple doesn’t fall far from the tree
- Định nghĩa: a child usually has a similar character or similar qualities to his or her parents
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: con nhà tông không giống lông cũng giống cánh
- Ví dụ: Her daughter soon showed her own musical talent, proving that the apple doesn’t fall far from the tree.
3, The black sheep of a family
- Định nghĩa: a person who has done something bad that brings embarrassment or shame to his or her family
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: phá gia chi tử
- Ví dụ: He’s the black sheep of the family.
4, Pride and Joy
- Định nghĩa: a person or thing that gives someone great joy and satisfaction
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: niềm tự hào và hạnh phúc
- Ví dụ: Those flowers are her pride and joy.
5, Bad blood
- Định nghĩa: feelings of hate between people because of arguments in the past
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: mối quan hệ không tốt
- Ví dụ: There has been bad blood between the two families for years.
6, To wear the pants
- Định nghĩa: (especially of a woman) to be the person in a relationship who is in control and who makes decisions for both people
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: người nắm quyền trong nhà
- Ví dụ: Brian may seem domineering, but it’s Lisa that really wears the pants in that relationship.
7, To rule the roost
- Định nghĩa: to be the person who makes all the decisions in a group
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: người chịu trách nhiệm chính
- Ví dụ: In that family, it is the grandma who rules the roost.
8, Men make houses, women make homes
- Định nghĩa: Men are typically more concerned with attaining or constructing a house as a functional dwelling place, while women tend to furnish and decorate a house with things that make it feel like one’s personal home.
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: đàn ông xây nhà, đàn bà xây tổ ấm
- Ví dụ: She’s so nice when taking care of her family. Everything will be done with her. Men make houses, women make homes, right.
9, Bring home the bacon
- Định nghĩa: to earn money for a family to live on
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: kiếm tiền nuôi gia đình
- Ví dụ: I can’t sit around all day – someone’s got to bring home the bacon.
10, Run in family
- Định nghĩa: If a quality, ability, disease, etc. runs in the family, many members of the family have it
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: đặc điểm chung của một gia đình (di truyền)
- Ví dụ: We’re all ambitious – it seems to run in the family.
11, Be/run in somebody’s blood
- Định nghĩa: if an ability or tendency is in, or runs in, someone’s blood, it is natural to them and others in their family
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: đặc điểm tự nhiên, ăn sâu vào máu của ai đó
- Ví dụ: Psychic awareness ran in my blood.
12, East or West, home is best
- Định nghĩa: wherever you travel in the world, your home is the best place to be
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: dù có đi đâu thì nhà cũng là nơi tuyệt vời nhất
- Ví dụ: If you have ever travelled to places where there are limited facilities as compared to those in your home area, the saying ‘East or west, home is best’ will probably make more sense now.
13, Blood is thicker than water
- Định nghĩa: said to emphasize that you believe that family connections are always more important than other types of relationship
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: một giọt máu đào hơn ao nước lã
- Ví dụ: I don’t share the belief that blood is thicker than water.
14, Your (own) flesh and blood
- Định nghĩa: someone’s relation
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: máu mủ, ruột thịt
- Ví dụ: I couldn’t send him away – he’s my own flesh and blood.
15, Break one’s neck
- Định nghĩa: to do all you possibly can; try your hardest.
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: nai lưng ra làm, cố gắng hết sức
- Ví dụ: There is no point in breaking your back. Take your time.
16, Chip off the old block
- Định nghĩa: someone who is very similar in character to their father or mother
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: giống bố mẹ như đúc
- Ví dụ: Those of us who knew and loved his father will recognize a chip off the old block.
17, Like two peas in the same pot
- Định nghĩa: when two things are so similar that there is very little difference between them
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: giống nhau như đúc
- Ví dụ: The twins are like two peas in a pod.
18, When the blood sheds, the heart aches
- Định nghĩa: If your heart aches, you feel sad or feel sympathy and sadness for the suffering of other people
- Nghĩa tiếng Việt: máu chảy ruột mềm
- Ví dụ: When the blood sheds, the heart aches. Everyone in the family has to take responsibility to stand by their side and help them to go through sorrow.
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