PASSAGE 1: Voyage of Going: beyond the blue line 2
A One feels a certain sympathy for Captain James Cook on the day in 1778 that he “discovered” Hawaii. Then on his third expedition to the Pacific, the British navigator had explored scores of islands across the breadth of the sea, from lush New Zealand to the lonely wastes of Easter Island. This latest voyage had taken him thousands of miles north from the Society Islands to an archipelago so remote that even the old Polynesians back on Tahiti knew nothing about it. Imagine Cook’s surprise, then, when the natives of Hawaii came paddling out in their canoes and greeted him in a familiar tongue, one he had heard on virtually every mote of inhabited land he had visited. Marveling at the ubiquity of this Pacific language and culture, he later wondered in his journal: “How shall we account for this Nation spreading it self so far over this Vast ocean?”
B Answers have been slow in coming. But now a startling archaeological find on the island of Efate, in the Pacific nation of Vanuatu, has revealed an ancient seafaring people, the distant ancestors of today’s Polynesians, taking their first steps into the unknown. The discoveries there have also opened a window into the shadowy world of those early voyagers. At the same time, other pieces of this human puzzle are turning up in unlikely places. Climate data gleaned from slow-growing corals around the Pacific and from sediments in alpine lakes in South America may help explain how, more than a thousand years later, a second wave of seafarers beat their way across the entire Pacific.
C “What we have is a first- or second-generation site containing the graves of some of the Pacific’s first explorers,” says Spriggs, professor of archaeology at the Australian National University and co-leader of an international team excavating the site. It came to light only by luck. A backhoe operator, digging up topsoil on the grounds of a derelict coconut plantation, scraped open a grave – the first of dozens in a burial ground some 3,000 years old. It is the oldest cemetery ever found in the Pacific islands, and it harbors the bones of an ancient people archaeologists call the Lapita, a label that derives from a beach in New Caledonia where a landmark cache of their pottery was found in the 1950s. They were daring blue-water adventurers who roved the sea not just as explorers but also as pioneers, bringing along everything they would need to build new lives – their families and livestock, taro seedlings and stone tools.
D Within the span of a few centuries the Lapita stretched the boundaries of their world from the jungle-clad volcanoes of Papua New Guinea to the loneliest coral outliers of Tonga, at least 2,000 miles eastward in the Pacific. Along the way they explored millions of square miles of unknown sea, discovering and colonizing scores of tropical islands never before seen by human eyes: Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa.
E What little is known or surmised about them has been pieced together from fragments of pottery, animal bones, obsidian flakes, and such oblique sources as comparative linguistics and geochemistry. Although their voyages can be traced back to the northern islands of Papua New Guinea, their language – variants of which are still spoken across the Pacific – came from Taiwan. And their peculiar style of pottery decoration, created by pressing a carved stamp into the clay, probably had its roots in the northern Philippines. With the discovery of the Lapita cemetery on Efate, the volume of data available to researchers has expanded dramatically. The bones of at least 62 individuals have been uncovered so far – including old men, young women, even babies – and more skeletons are known to be in the ground. Archaeologists were also thrilled to discover six complete Lapita pots; before this, only four had ever been found. Other discoveries included a burial urn with modeled birds arranged on the rim as though peering down at the human bones sealed inside. It’s an important find, Spriggs says, for it conclusively identifies the remains as Lapita. “It would be hard for anyone to argue that these aren’t Lapita when you have human bones enshrined inside what is unmistakably a Lapita urn.”
F Several lines of evidence also undergird Spriggs’s conclusion that this was a community of pioneers making their first voyages into the remote reaches of Oceania. For one thing, the radiocarbon dating of bones and charcoal places them early in the Lapita expansion. For another, the chemical makeup of the obsidian flakes littering the site indicates that the rock wasn’t local; instead it was imported from a large island in Papua New Guinea’s Bismarck Archipelago, the springboard for the Lapita’s thrust into the Pacific. A particularly intriguing clue comes from chemical tests on the teeth of several skeletons. DNA teased from these ancient bones may also help answer one of the most puzzling questions in Pacific anthropology: Did all Pacific islanders spring from one source or many? Was there only one outward migration from a single point in Asia, or several from different points? “This represents the best opportunity we’ve had yet,” says Spriggs, “to find out who the Lapita actually were, where they came from, and who their closest descendants are today.”
G There is one stubborn question for which archaeology has yet to provide any answers: How did the Lapita accomplish the ancient equivalent of a moon landing, many times over? No one has found one of their canoes or any rigging, which could reveal how the canoes were sailed. Nor do the oral histories and traditions of later Polynesians offer any insights, for they segue into myth long before they reach as far back in time as the Lapita. “All we can say for certain is that the Lapita had canoes that were capable of ocean voyages, and they had the ability to sail them,” says Geoff Irwin, a professor of archaeology at the University of Auckland and an avid yachtsman. Those sailing skills, he says, were developed and passed down over thousands of years by earlier mariners who worked their way through the archipelagoes of the western Pacific making short crossings to islands within sight of each other. Reaching Fiji, as they did a century or so later, meant crossing more than 500 miles of ocean, pressing on day after day into the great blue void of the Pacific. What gave them the courage to launch out on such a risky voyage?
H The Lapita’s thrust into the Pacific was eastward, against the prevailing trade winds, Irwin notes. Those nagging headwinds, he argues, may have been the key to their success. “They could sail out for days into the unknown and reconnoiter, secure in the knowledge that if they didn’t find anything, they could turn about and catch a swift ride home on the trade winds. It’s what made the whole thing work.” Once out there, skilled seafarers would detect abundant leads to follow to land: seabirds and turtles, coconuts and twigs carried out to sea by the tides, and the afternoon pileup of clouds on the horizon that often betokens an island in the distance. Some islands may have broadcast their presence with far less subtlety than a cloud bank. Some of the most violent eruptions anywhere on the planet during the past 10,000 years occurred in Melanesia, which sits nervously in one of the most explosive volcanic regions on Earth. Even less spectacular eruptions would have sent plumes of smoke billowing into the stratosphere and rained ash for hundreds of miles. It’s possible that the Lapita saw these signs of distant islands and later sailed off in their direction, knowing they would find land. For returning explorers, successful or not, the geography of their own archipelagoes provided a safety net to keep them from overshooting their home ports and sailing off into eternity.
I However they did it, the Lapita spread themselves a third of the way across the Pacific, then called it quits for reasons known only to them. Ahead lay the vast emptiness of the central Pacific, and perhaps they were too thinly stretched to venture farther. They probably never numbered more than a few thousand in total, and in their rapid migration eastward they encountered hundreds of islands – more than 300 in Fiji alone. Still, more than a millennium would pass before the Lapita’s descendants, a people we now call the Polynesians, struck out in search of new territory.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet, write
YES – if the statement agrees with the views of the writer
NO – if the statement contradicts the views of the writer
NOT GIVEN – if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1. Captain cook once expected the Hawaii might speak another language of people from other pacific islands.
2. Captain cook depicted number of cultural aspects of Polynesians in his journal.
3. Professor Spriggs and his research team went to the Efate to try to find the site of ancient cemetery.
4. The Lapita completed a journey of around 2,000 miles in a period less than a centenary.
5. The Lapita were the first inhabitants in many pacific islands.
6. The unknown pots discovered in Efate had once been used for cooking.
7. The urn buried in Efate site was plain as it was without any decoration.
1. Keywords: Captain Cook, expected, Hawaii, speak another language.
Thông tin ở đoạn A: “ Imagine Cook’s surprise, then, he had heard on the natives of Hawaii…..he had visited”. Nghĩa là tưởng tượng sự bất ngờ của Cook khi mà những người bản xứ của Hawaii chèo canô và chào ông ta với 1 ngôn ngữ quen thuộc, cái mà ông ta đã nghe trên hầu như tất cả lời nói của những vùng đất ông ta từng đi qua”. -> Ông này bất ngờ vì người dân Hawaii vẫn nói thứ ngôn ngữ quen thuộc như những nơi khác, tương đương với việc ông ý đã tưởng người Hawaii sẽ nói 1 ngôn ngữ khác.
ĐÁP ÁN: YES
2. Keywords: Captain Cook, depicted, cultural aspects, Polynesians, journal
Thông tin về journal ở đoạn A câu cuối: “ he later wondered in his journal: How shall we account…..vast ocean”, nghĩa là ông ta sau đó đã viết nỗi băn khoăn vào nhật ký của mình: Làm sao chúng ta giải thích được việc quốc gia này đã mở rộng đến vậy trên 1 đại dương khổng lồ. Tuy nhiên không có thông tin về việc thuyền trưởng Cook miêu tả những khía cạnh về văn hóa của người Polynesian.
ĐÁP ÁN: NOT GIVEN
3. Keywords: Professor Spriggs, his research team, Efate’, find, ancient cemetery
Thông tin ở đoạn C: “ What we have is a first – or second generation site containing the graves of some…..by luck”, nghĩa là cái mà chúng tôi tìm thấy là 1 địa điểm thuộc thế hệ thứ nhất hoặc thứ 2 bao gồm các ngôi mộ của những nhà thám hiểm Thái Bình Dương đầu tiên, theo lời của Spriggs, giáo sư khảo cổ học ở đại học quốc gia Úc và cũng là đồng lãnh đạo của 1 nhóm nghiên cứu quốc tế mà khai quật lên di tích này. Điều này được phát hiện ra nhờ vào may mắn. Vì do may mắn, tình cờ nên không thể nói mục tiêu ban đầu của ông Spriggs và đội nghiên cứu là đi tìm ngôi mộ cổ được.
ĐÁP ÁN: NO
4. Keywords: Lapita, completed, journey, 2000 miles, less than a century
Thông tin ở về 2000 miles ở đoạn D: “ Within the span of a few centuries the Lapita….Pacific”, nghĩa là Trong vòng vài thế kỷ, the Lapita đã mở rộng biên giới của họ từ những ngọn núi lửa bao phủ bởi rừng của Papua New Guinea đến những rặng san hô bao ngoài xa xôi nhất của Tonga, ở vị trí ít nhất 2000 dặm về phía Đông của Thái Bình Dương. Không hề có thông tin về người Lapita hoàn thành cuộc hành trình kéo dài 2000 dặm trong gần 1 thế kỷ.
ĐÁP ÁN: NOT GIVEN
5. Keywords: The Lapita, first, inhabitants, Pacific islands
Thông tin ở đoạn D câu cuối : “ Along the way they explored millions of square….Samoa”, nghĩa là trên đường đi họ đã khám phá hàng triệu kilômét vuông những vùng biển chưa từng được biết đến, khám phá ra và định cư ở rất nhiều hòn đảo nhiệt đới chưa từng được con người biết tới như: Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa.
ĐÁP ÁN: YES
6. Keywords: urn, Efate’, plain, without decoration
Thông tin ở đoạn E: “ And their peculiar style of pottery…..into the clay”, nghĩa là và phong cách trang trí đồ gốm kì lạ của họ, tạo ra bằng cách in hình 1 con dấu vào trong đất sét -> urn ( tiểu đựng hài cốt) cũng là đồ gốm, sẽ có họa tiết này, không thể trơn ( plain) được.
ĐÁP ÁN: NO
7. Keywords: unknown pots, Efate’, once used, cooking
Thông tin về pots ở đoạn E: “ Archaeologists were also thrilled to discover six complete Lapita pots”, nghĩa là những nhà khảo cổ học cũng mừng rỡ khi tìm được 6 chiếc nồi Lapita nguyên vẹn. Tuy nhiên, không có thông tin về những cái nồi này từng được sử dụng để nấu ăn.
ĐÁP ÁN: NOT GIVEN
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 8-10 on your answer sheet.
Scientific Evident found in Efate site
Tests show the human remains and the charcoal found in the buried um are from the start of the Lapita period. Yet the 8………………… covering many of the Efate site did not come from that area. Then examinations carried out on the 9………………… discovered at Efate site reveal that not everyone buried there was a native living in the area. In fact, DNA could identify the Lapita’s nearest present-days 10……………..
8. Keywords: human remains, charcoal, buried urn, covering, Efate’, not come from, area
Thông tin ở đoạn F: “ For another, the chemical makeup of the obsidian flakes…..local”, nghĩa là đối với 1 lý do khác, cấu trúc hóa học của những mảnh opxidian rải rác quanh di tích cho thấy đá không phải sản vật địa phương.
ĐÁP ÁN: rock
Vocabulary: local = come from the area
9. Keywords: examinations, Efate’, not everyone, native
Thông tin ở đoạn F: “ A particularly intriguing clue comes from chemical tests…..one source or many?, nghĩa là 1 manh mối đặc biệt thú vị khác đến từ những thử nghiệm hóa học trên răng của 1 vài bộ xương. DNA của những bộ xương cổ xưa này có thể là đáp án cho những câu hỏi gây băn khoăn nhất của ngành nhân chủng học: Có phải tất cả các cư dân đảo Lapita đều cùng 1 nguồn cội hay không?
ĐÁP ÁN: teeth
10. Keywords: DNA, assist, the identifying, Lapita, present day
Thông tin ở đoạn F: “ to find out who the Lapita actually…..are today”, nghĩa là để tìm ra được người Lapita thật sự là ai, họ đến từ đâu và hậu duệ gần nhất của họ ngày nay là ai.
ĐÁP ÁN: descendants
Vocabulary: present day = today
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.
What did the Lapita travel in when they crossed the oceans?
In Irwins’s view, what would the Latipa have relied on to bring them fast back to the base?
Which sea creatures would have been an indication to the Lapita of where to find land?
11. Keywords: What, Lapita, travel in, when, crossed, ocean
Thông tin ở đoạn G: “ All we can say for certain is that the Lapita….sail them”, nghĩa là điều mà chúng ta có thể chắc chắn là người Lapita đã có những chiếc ca nô mà có khả năng giúp họ trên những hành trình khám phá đại dương, và họ có khả năng lái những chiếc ca nô này.
ĐÁP ÁN: canoes
12. Keywords: Irwin’s view, what, Lapita, relied on, bring them, base
Thông tin ở đoạn H, 2 câu đầu: “ The Lapita’s thrust into the Pacific was eastward,…..to their success”, nghĩa là Sự đổ bộ của người Lapita vào Thái Bình Dương là theo hướng đông, ngược chiều với gió mậu dịch thịnh hành. Những cơn gió mạnh ngược chiều này, ông cho rằng, có thể là chìa khóa cho sự thành công.
ĐÁP ÁN: prevailing trade winds
13. Keywords: Which, sea creatures, indication, Lapita, where to find land
Thông tin ở đoạn H: “ Once out there, skilled seafarers would detect abundant leads to follow to land: seabirds and turtles”, nghĩa 1 khi ra biển, những thủy thủ giàu kinh nghiệm sẽ phát hiện ra những đầu mối đủ để theo để đến được đất liền: chim biển và rùa.
ĐÁP ÁN: seabirds and turtles
PASSAGE 2: Does An IQ Test Prove Creativity?
Everyone has creativity, some a lot more than others. The development of humans, and possibly the universe, depends on it. Yet creativity is an elusive creature. What do we mean by it? What is going on in our brains when ideas form? Does it feel the same for artists and scientists? We asked writers and neuroscientists, pop stars and AI gurus to try to deconstruct the creative process-and learn how we can all ignite the spark within.
A In the early 1970s, creativity was still seen as a type of intelligence. But when more subtle tests of IQ and creative skills were developed in the 1970s, particularly by the father of creativity testing, Paul Torrance, it became clear that the link was not so simple. Creative people are intelligent, in terms of IQ tests at least, but only averagely or just above. While it depends on the discipline, in general beyond a certain level IQ does not help boost creativity; it is necessary but not sufficient to make someone creative.
B Because of the difficulty of studying the actual process, most early attempts to study creativity concentrated on personality. According to creativity specialist Mark Runco of California State University, Fullerton, the “creative personality” tends to place a high value on aesthetic qualities and to have broad interests, providing lots of resources to draw on and knowledge to recombine into novel solutions. “Creatives” have an attraction to complexity and an ability to handle conflict. They are also usually highly self-motivated, perhaps even a little obsessive. Less creative people, on the other hand, tend to become irritated if they cannot immediately fit all the pieces together. They are less tolerant of confusion. Creativity comes to those who wait, but only to those who are happy to do so in a bit of a fog.
C But there may be a price to pay for having a creative personality. For centuries, a link has been made between creativity and mental illness.Psychiatrist Jamison of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, found that established artists are significantly more likely to have mood disorders. But she also suggests that a change of mood state might be the key to triggering a creative event, rather than the negative mood itself. Intelligence can help channel this thought style into great creativity, but when combined with emotional problems, lateral, divergent or open thinking can lead to mental illness instead.
D Jordan Peterson, a psychologist at the University of Toronto, Canada, believes he has identified a mechanism that could help explain this. He says that the brains of creative people seem more open to incoming stimuli than less creative types. Our senses are continuously feeding a mass of information into our brains, which have to block or ignore most of it to save us from being snowed under. Peterson calls this process latent inhibition, and argues that people who have less of it, and who have a reasonably high IQ with a good working memory can juggle more of the data, and so may be open to more possibilities and ideas. The downside of extremely low latent inhibition may be a confused thought style that predisposes people to mental illness. So for Peterson, mental illness is not a prerequisite for creativity, but it shares some cognitive traits.
E But what of the creative act itself? One of the first studies of the creative brain at work was by Colin Martindale, a psychologist from the University of Maine in Orono. Back in 1978, he used a network of scalp electrodes to record an electroencephalogram ,a record of the pattern of brain waves, as people made up stories. Creativity has two stages: inspiration and elaboration, each characterised by very different states of mind. While people were dreaming up their stories, he found their brains were surprisingly quiet. The dominant activity was alpha waves, indicating a very low level of cortical arousal: a relaxed state, as though the conscious mind was quiet while the brain was making connections behind the scenes. It’s the same sort of brain activity as in some stages of sleep, dreaming or rest, which could explain why sleep and relaxation can help people be creative. However, when these quiet minded people were asked to work on their stories, the alpha wave activity dropped off and the brain became busier, revealing increased cortical arousal, more corralling of activity and more organised thinking. Strikingly, it was the people who showed the biggest difference in brain activity between the inspiration and development stages who produced the most creative storylines. Nothing in their background brain activity marked them as creative or uncreative. “It’s as if the less creative person can’t shift gear,” says Guy Claxton, a psychologist at the University of Bristol, UK. “Creativity requires different kinds of thinking. Very creative people move between these states intuitively.” Creativity, it seems, is about mental flexibility: perhaps not a two-step process, but a toggling between two states. In a later study, Martindale found that communication between the sides of the brain is also important.
F Paul Howard-Jones, who works with Claxton at Bristol, believes he has found another aspect of creativity. He asked people to make up a story based on three words and scanned their brains using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In one trial, people were asked not to try too hard and just report the most obvious story suggested by the words. In another, they were asked to be inventive. He also varied the words so it was easier or harder to link them. As people tried harder and came up with more creative tales, there was a lot more activity in a particular prefrontal brain region on the right-hand side. These regions are probably important in monitoring for conflict, helping us to filter out many of of combining the words and allowing us to pull out just the desirable connections, Howard-Jones suggests. It shows that there is another side to creativity, he says. The story-making task, particularly when we are stretched, produces many options which we have to assess. So part of creativity is a conscious process of evaluating and analysing ideas. The test also shows that the more we try and are stretched, the more creative our minds can be.
G And creativity need not always be a solitary, tortured affair, according to Teresa Amabile of Harvard Business School. Though there is a slight association between solitary writing or painting and negative moods or emotional disturbances, scientific creativity and workplace creativity seem much more likely to occur when people are positive and buoyant .In a decade-long study of real businesses, to be published soon, Amabile found that positive moods relate positively to creativity in organisations, and that the relationship is a simple linear one. Creative thought also improves people’s moods, her team found, so the process is circular. Time pressures, financial pressures and hard-earned bonus schemes on the other hand, do not boost workplace creativity: internal motivation, not coercion, produces the best work.
H Another often forgotten aspect of creativity is social. Vera John-Steiner of the University of New Mexico says that to be really creative you need strong social networks and trusting relationships, not just active neural networks. One vital characteristic of a highly creative person, she says, is that they have at least one other person in their life who doesn’t think they are completely nuts
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE – if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE – if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN – If there is no information on this
14. High IQ guarantees better creative ability in one person than that who achieves an average score in an IQ test.
15. In a competitive society, individuals’ language proficiency is more important than other abilities.
16. A wider range of resources and knowledge can be integrated by more creative people into bringing about creative approaches.
17. A creative person not necessarily suffers more mental illness.
14. Keywords: high IQ, guarantees, better creative ability, than, average score, IQ test
Thông tin ở đoạn đầu: “ Creative people are intelligent, in….make someone creative”, nghĩa là những người sáng tạo thì thông minh, ít nhất về mặt điểm IQ, nhưng chỉ ở mức trung bình hoặc hơn 1 chút. Trong khi còn phụ thuộc vào sự rèn luyện nữa, nhìn chung vượt qua được mức IQ không giúp thúc đẩy sự sáng tạo, nó cần thiết, nhưng chưa đủ để làm cho ai đó sáng tạo.
ĐÁP ÁN: FALSE
15. Keywords: competitive society, language proficiency, important, than, other abilities
Không có thông tin về là khả năng ngôn ngữ quan trọng hơn các khả năng khác.
ĐÁP ÁN: NOT GIVEN
16. Keywords: wider range, resources, knowledge, integrated, more creative people
Thông tin ở đoạn 3: “ the “ creative personality tends to place a high value….novel solutions”, nghĩa là tính cách sáng tạo thường coi trọng tính thẩm mỹ và có những sở thích đa dạng, cung cấp nhiều nguồn tài nguyên để phát huy cũng như kiến thức để kết hợp thành những giải pháp mới.
ĐÁP ÁN: TRUE
Vocabulary: creative approaches = novel solutions
17. Keywords: creative person, not necessarily, suffer, mental illness
Thông tin ở đoạn 4: “ So for Peterson, mental illness is not a pre-requisite for creativity”, nghĩa là đối với Peterson, bệnh về tâm lý không phải là tiền đề cho tính sáng tạo, nghĩa là không phải ai sáng tạo cũng có bệnh tâm lý.
ĐÁP ÁN: TRUE
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) with opinions or deeds below.
Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 18-22 on your answer sheet.
A – Jamison
B – Jordan Peterson
C – Guy Claxton
D – Howard-Jone
E – Teresa Amabile
F – Vera John-Steiner
18. Instead of producing the negative mood, a shift of mood state might be the one important factor of inducing a creative thinking.
19. Where the more positive moods individuals achieve, there is higher creativity in organizations.
20. Good interpersonal relationship and trust contribute to a person with more creativity.
21. Creativity demands an ability that can easily change among different kinds of thinking.
22. Certain creative mind can be upgraded if we are put into more practice in assessing and processing ideas.
18. Keywords: Instead of, negative mood, shift of mood states, important factor, inducing, creative thinking
Thông tin ở đoạn 3: “ Psychiatrist Jamison of….itself”, nghĩa là Bác sĩ tâm thần học Jamison của Đại học John Hopkins ở Baltimore, Maryland đã tìm ra rằng những nghệ sĩ nổi tiếng thì có khả năng bị rối loạn tâm lý nhiều hơn. Nhưng bà ấy cũng chỉ ra rằng sự thay đổi trạng thái tâm lý có thể là chìa khóa dẫn đến 1 ý tưởng sáng tạo, thay vì tâm trạng tiêu cực.
ĐÁP ÁN: A
Vocabulary: change = shift, induce = trigger
19. Keywords: more positive moods, higher creativity
Thông tin ở đoạn thứ 2 từ cuối lên: “ Amabile found that positive moods relate positively to creativity in organisations”, nghĩa Amabile đã tìm ra rằng tâm trạng tích cực có tỷ lệ thuận với tính sáng tạo.
ĐÁP ÁN: E
20. Keywords: good interpersonal relationship, trust, contribute, person, more creativity
Thông tin ở đoạn cuối: “ Vera John- Steiner of the University….relationships”, nghĩa là Vera John Steiner of trường Đại học New Mexico nói rằng để thật sự sáng tạo bàn cần 1 mạng lưới quan hệ xã hội rộng và những mối quan hệ đáng tin tưởng.
ĐÁP ÁN: F
21. Keywords: Creativity, demands, ability, easily change, kinds of thinking
Thông tin ở đoạn 5: “ says Guy Claxton, a psychologist….intuitively”, nghĩa là theo như lời của Guy Claxton, 1 nhà tâm lý học ở ĐH Bristol, sự sáng tạo yêu cầu rất nhiều cách suy nghĩ khác nhau. Những người vô cùng sáng tạo thì thay đổi giữa các trạng thái này theo trực giác.
ĐÁP ÁN: C
22. Keywords: Creative minds, upgraded, put into pratice, assessing and processing ideas
Thông tin ở đoạn 6: “ So part of creativity is a conscious process of evaluating and analysing ideas”, nghĩa là vì vậy một phần của tính sáng tạo là 1 quá trình đánh giá và phân tích những ý tưởng.
ĐÁP ÁN: D
Vocabulary: assess = evaluate, process = analyse
Complete the summary paragraph described below. In boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet, write the correct answer with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.
But what of the creative act itself? In 1978, Colin Martindale made records of pattern of brain waves as people made up stories by applying a system constituted of many 23 ……………………. . The two phrases of creativity, such as 24 ………………. were found. While people were still planning their stories, their brains shows little active sign and the mental activity was showed a very relaxed state as the same sort of brain activity as in sleep, dreaming or rest. However, experiment proved the signal of 25 …………………… went down and the brain became busier, revealing increased cortical arousal, when these people who were in a laidback state were required to produce their stories. Strikingly, it was found the person who was perceived to have the greatest 26 ……………………… in brain activity between two stages, produced storylines with highest level of creativity.
23. Keywords: 1978, Colin Martindale, records, brain waves, system
Thông tin ở đoạn 6: “ Back in 1978, he used a network of scalp electrodes to record….brain waves”, nghĩa là vào năm 1978, ông ta sử dụng 1 mạng lưới điện cực để ghi lại điện não đồ, sự ghi lại quy luật hoạt động của sóng não.
ĐÁP ÁN: scalp electrodes
Vocabulary: system = network
24. Keywords: two phases, creativity
Thông tin ở đoạn 6: “ Creativity has two stages: inspiration and elaboration”, nghĩa là sự sáng tạo có 2 giai đoạn: Có cảm hứng và phát triển tỉ mỉ.
ĐÁP ÁN: inspiration and elaboration
25. Keywords: signal, wen down, brain, busier
Thông tin ở đoạn 6: “ However, when these quiet-minded people were asked….busier”, nghĩa là Tuy nhiên, khi những người tâm trí đang bình ổn này được yêu cầu kể lại câu truyện của họ, hoạt động của sóng alpha giảm và bộ não trở nên bận rộn hơn.
ĐÁP ÁN: alpha wave activity
Vocabulary: go down = drop off
26. Keywords: person, brain activity, between two stages, highest level, creativity
Thông tin ở đoạn 6: “ Strikingly, it was the people who showed the biggest….storylines”, nghĩa là thật là bất ngờ, chính những người có sự khác biệt lớn nhất về hoạt động của não bộ giữa giai đoạn có cảm hứng và phát triển đã có những cốt truyện sáng tạo nhất.
ĐÁP ÁN: difference
Vocabulary: biggest = greatest
PASSAGE 3: Monkeys and Forests
AS AN EAST WIND blasts through a gap in the Cordillera de Tilaran, a rugged mountain range that splits northern Costa Rica in half, a female mantled howler monkey moves through the swaying trees of the forest canopy.
A. Ken Glander, a primatologist from Duke University, gazes into the canopy, tracking the female’s movements. Holding a dart gun, he waits with infinite patience for the right moment to shoot. With great care, Glander aims and fires. Hit in the rump, the monkey wobbles. This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacienda La Pacifica, a working cattle ranch in Guanacaste province. Other native primates -white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys – once were common in this area, too, but vanished after the Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s. Most of the surrounding land was clear-cut for pasture.
B. Howlers persist at La Pacifica, Glander explains, because they are leaf- eaters. They eat fruit, when it’s available but, unlike capuchin and spider monkeys, do not depend on large areas of fruiting trees. “Howlers can survive anyplace you have half a dozen trees, because their eating habits are so flexible,” he says. In forests, life is an arms race between trees and the myriad creatures that feed on leaves. Plants have evolved a variety of chemical defenses, ranging from bad-tasting tannins, which bind with plant-produced nutrients, rendering them indigestible, to deadly poisons, such as alkaloids and cyanide.
C. All primates, including humans, have some ability to handle plant toxins. “We can detoxify a dangerous poison known as caffeine, which is deadly to a lot of animals:” Glander says. For leaf-eaters, long-term exposure to a specific plant toxin can increase their ability to defuse the poison and absorb the leaf nutrients. The leaves that grow in regenerating forests, like those at La Pacifica, are actually more howler friendly than those produced by the undisturbed, centuries-old trees that survive farther south, in the Amazon Basin. In younger forests, trees put most of their limited energy into growing wood, leaves and fruit, so they produce much lower levels of toxin than do well-established, old-growth trees.
D. The value of maturing forests to primates is a subject of study at Santa Rosa National Park, about 35 miles northwest of Hacienda La Pacifica. The park hosts populations not only of mantled howlers but also of white-faced capuchins and spider monkeys. Yet the forests there are young, most of them less than 50 years old. Capuchins were the first to begin using the reborn forests, when the trees were as young as 14 years. Howlers, larger and heavier than capuchins, need somewhat older trees, with limbs that can support their greater body weight. A working ranch at Hacienda La Pacifica also explain their population boom in Santa Rosa. “Howlers are more resilient than capuchins and spider monkeys for several reasons,” Fedigan explains. “They can live within a small home range, as long as the trees have the right food for them. Spider monkeys, on the other hand, occupy a huge home range, so they can’t make it in fragmented habitat.”
E. Howlers also reproduce faster than do other monkey species in the area. Capuchins don’t bear their first young until about 7 years old, and spider monkeys do so even later, but howlers give birth for the first time at about 3.5 years of age. Also, while a female spider monkey will have a baby about once every four years, well-fed howlers can produce an infant every two years.
F. The leaves howlers eat hold plenty of water, so the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes. This ability gives them a real advantage over capuchin and spider monkeys, which have suffered during the long, ongoing drought in Guanacaste.
G. Growing human population pressures in Central and South America have led to persistent destruction of forests. During the 1990s, about 1.1 million acres of Central American forest were felled yearly. Alejandro Estrada, an ecologist at Estacion de Biologia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico, has been exploring how monkeys survive in a landscape increasingly shaped by humans. He and his colleagues recently studied the ecology of a group of mantled howler monkeys that thrive in a habitat completely altered by humans: a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico. Like many varieties of coffee, cacao plants need shade to grow, so 40 years ago the landowners planted fig, monkey pod and other tall trees to form a protective canopy over their crop. The howlers moved in about 25 years ago after nearby forests were cut. This strange habitat, a hodgepodge of cultivated native and exotic plants, seems to support about as many monkeys as would a same-sized patch of wild forest. The howlers eat the leaves and fruit of the shade trees, leaving the valuable cacao pods alone, so the farmers tolerate them.
H. Estrada believes the monkeys bring underappreciated benefits to such farms, dispersing the seeds of fig and other shade trees and fertilizing the soil with feces. He points out that howler monkeys live in shade coffee and cacao plantations in Nicaragua and Costa Rica as well as in Mexico. Spider monkeys also forage in such plantations, though they need nearby areas of forest to survive in the long term. He hopes that farmers will begin to see the advantages of associating with wild monkeys, which includes potential ecotourism projects.
“Conservation is usually viewed as a conflict between agricultural practices and the need to preserve nature, ” Estrada says. “We ’re moving away from that vision and beginning to consider ways in which agricultural activities may become a tool for the conservation ofprimates in human-modified landscapes. ”
The reading Passage has eight paragraphs A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.
27. A reference of rate of reduction in forest habitats
28. An area where only one species of monkey survived while other two species vanished
29. A reason for howler monkey of choose new leaves as food over old ones
30. Mention to howler monkey’s diet and eating habits
31. A reference of asking farmers’ changing attitude toward wildlife
32. The advantage for howler monkey’s flexibility living in a segmented habitat
27. Keywords: rate of reduction, forest habitats
Thông tin ở đoạn G: “ During the 1990s, about 1.1 million acres of Central American forest were felled yearly”, nghĩa là trong những năm 1990, khoảng 1,1 triệu mẫu rừng ở vùng Trung Mỹ bị chặt mỗi năm.
ĐÁP ÁN: G
28. Keywords: Area, only one species of monkey, survived, two others, vanished
Thông tin ở đoạn A: “ Hit in the rump, the monkey wobbles. This howler…1950s”, nghĩa là bị bắn vào phần mông, con khỉ lảo đảo. Loại khỉ rú này thuộc về loài đã sống ở đây hàng thập kỷ ở Hacienda La Pacifica, ở trại nuôi gia súc ở tỉnh Guanacasta. 2 loài linh trưởng khác- khỉ mũ mặt trắng và khỉ nhện- đã từng rất nhiều ở khu vực này- nhưng đã tuyệt chủng sau khi đường cao tốc Pan-America được xây dựng gần đó vào những năm 1950.
ĐÁP ÁN: A
29. Keywords: reason, howler monkey, choose, new leaves as foods
Thông tin ở đoạn C: “ The leaves that grow in regenerating forests, like those….farther south”, nghĩa là lá cây mà phát triển ở những khu rừng tái sinh, như những khu rừng ở La Pacifia thì thân thiện, dễ tiêu hóa hơn đối với khỉ rú hơn là loại lá của những cây già hàng trăm tuổi mà phát triển xa hơn về phía Nam.
ĐÁP ÁN: C
30. Keywords: howler monkey’s diet, eating habits
Thông tin ở đoạn B: “ they are leaf eaters. They eat fruit….flexible”, nghĩa là chúng là những động vật ăn lá cây. Chúng ăn hoa quả khi có nhưng không phụ thuộc vào những cây ăn quả như loài khỉ mũ và khỉ nhện. “ Khỉ rú có thể sinh tồn ở bất cứ đâu thậm chí nơi đó chỉ có nửa tá cây xanh, vì thói quen ăn uống của chúng khá linh hoạt”.
ĐÁP ÁN: B
31. Keywords: asking farmers, change attitudes, wildlife
Thông tin ở đoạn H: “ He hopes that farmers will begin to….projects”, nghĩa là ông ta hy vọng những người nông dân sẽ bắt đầu nhận ra những ưu điểm của việc kết giao với những loài khỉ hoang dã, bao gồm sự phát triển của những dự án du lịch sinh thái tiềm năng.
32. Keywords: advantage, howler monkey’s flexibility, living, segmented habitat
Thông tin ở đoạn D: “ Howlers are more resilient than….fragmented habitat”, nghĩa là Loài khỉ rú thì dễ sống, linh hoạt hơn khỉ mũ và khỉ nhện vì 1 vài lý do, Fedigan giải thích : “ chúng có thể sinh sống trong phạm vi nơi ở nhỏ, miễn là cây cối cung cấp thức ăn thích hợp với chúng. Mặt khác, loài khỉ nhện, thường chiếm phạm vi nơi ở lớn, vì vậy chúng không thể sinh tồn trong điều kiện phân mảnh sinh cảnh.
ĐÁP ÁN: D
Vocabulary: segmented = fragmented
Look at the following places and the list of descriptions below.
Match each description with the correct place, A-E.
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 33-35 on your answer sheet.
A. Hacienda La Pacifica
B. Santa Rosa National Park
C. A cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico
D. Estacion de Biologia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico
E. Amazon Basin
33. A place where howler monkeys benefit to the local region’s agriculture
34. A place where it is the original home for all three native monkeys
35. A place where capuchins monkey comes for a better habitat
33. Keywords: place, howler, benefit, local agriculture
Thông tin ở đoạn G: “ a group of mantled howler monkeys that thrive in a habitat completely altered by humans: a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico”, nghĩa là 1 nhóm khỉ rú mà sinh sống trong 1 môi trường đã hoàn toàn bị thay đổi bởi con người: 1 đồn điền cacao ở Tabasco, Mexico. Và :” The howlers eat the leaves and fruit of the shade trees, leaving the valuable cacao pods alone, so the farmers tolerate them. Nghĩa là những con khỉ rú này ăn lá và quả của những cây tỏa bóng, để lại quả ca cao có giá trị, nên nông dân nhân nhượng cho chúng.
ĐÁP ÁN: C
34. Keywords: place, original home, all native monkeys
Thông tin ở đoạn A: “ This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacendia La Pacifia” nghĩa là loài khỉ rú này thuộc về 1 loài đã sống được vài thập kỷ ở Hacendia La Pacifia, và “ Other native monkeys, white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys”, nghĩa là 2 loài khỉ bản địa khác, khỉ mũ và khỉ nhện.
ĐÁP ÁN: A
35. Keywords: place, capuchin monkeys, came to, a better habitat
Thông tin ở đoạn D: đoạn này nói về Santa Rosa Park : “ Yet the forests are young, most of them less than 50 years old. Capuchins were the first to begin using the reborn forests, when the trees were as young as 14 years”, nghĩa là tất nhiên những khu rừng ở đây thì trẻ, phần lớn đều dưới 50 tuổi. Loài khỉ mũ này là loài đầu tiên bắt đầu sử dụng những khu rừng tái sinh, khi mà những cái cây mới 14 năm tuổi.
ĐÁP ÁN: B
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
The reasons why howler monkeys survive better in local region than other two species
Howlers live between in La Pacifica since they can feed themselves with leaves when 36 ……………….. is not easily found
Howlers have better ability to alleviate the 37 …………………… , which old and young trees used to protect themselves
When compared to that of spider monkeys and capuchin monkeys, the 38 ………………………. rate of howlers is relatively faster (round for just every 2 years).
The monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes as the leaves howlers eat hold high content of 39 ………………….. , which helps them to resist the continuous 40 ………………… in Guanacaste.
36. Keywords: Howlers, live better, La Pacifica, feed, leaves, not easily found
Thông tin ở đoạn B: “ Howlers persist at La Pacifica,….fruiting trees”, nghĩa là Loài khỉ rú thì sinh tồn ổn định ở La Pacifica, theo như Glander giải thích, vì chúng ăn lá. Chúng có ăn quả khi sẵn có, nhưng không bị phụ thuộc vào diện tích lớn những cây ăn quả.
ĐÁP ÁN: fruit
37. Keywords: Howlers, have ability, alleviate, old and young trees, used
Thông tin ở đoạn C: “ All primates, including humans, have some ability to handle plant toxins” nghĩa là tất cả các loài linh trưởng, bao gồm cả con người, có khả năng kiểm soát độc tố thực vật. Và “ For leaf-eaters, long-term exposure to a specific plant toxin…defuse the poison”, nghĩa là sự tiếp xúc lâu đối với 1 loại độc tố thực vật nhất định có thể làm tăng khả năng làm giảm độc tố.
ĐÁP ÁN: plant toxins
Vocabulary: alleviate = defuse
38. Keywords: rate, howlers, faster, every 2 years
Thông tin ở đoạn E: “ howlers give birth for the first time at about….every two years”, nghĩa là khỉ rú thì sinh lần đầu tiên lúc 3.5 tuổi. Trong khi 1 con cái khỉ nhện đẻ con 4 năm 1 lần, những con khỉ rú được cho ăn đầy đủ đẻ 2 năm 1 lần.
ĐÁP ÁN: birth ( birth rate: tốc độ sinh sản)
39. Keywords: monkeys, survive, away from, open streams and water holes, leaves, high content
Thông tin ở đoạn F: “ The leaves howlers eat hold plenty of water, so the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes”, nghĩa là lá cây mà loài khỉ rú ăn giữ rất nhiều nước, vì vậy loài khỉ này có thể tồn tại xa những con suối hay là hố nước.
ĐÁP ÁN: water
40. Keywords: help, resist, continous, Guanacaste
Thông tin ở đoạn F: “ This ability gives them a real….Guanacaste”, nghĩa là khả năng này đã cho nó lợi thế hơn các loài khỉ mũ và khỉ nhện, những loài mà phải chống chịu với trận hạn hán kéo dài và liên tục ở Guanacaste.
ĐÁP ÁN: drought
Vocabulary: continuous = ongoing
|Câu hỏi||Từ trong bài||Từ trong câu hỏi||Nghĩa tiếng Việt|
|8||Local||Come from the area||Địa phương, bản địa|
|10||Present day||Today||Ngày nay|
|16||Creative approaches||Novel solutions||Những cách tiếp cận, giải pháp mới mẻ, sáng tạo|
|18||Trigger||Induce||Gây nên, gợi nên|
|22||Process||Analyse||Xử lý, phân tích|
|23||System||Network||Hệ thống, mạng lưới|
|25||Go down||Drop off||Giảm|
|32||Segmented||Fragmented||Phân mảnh, chia tách|
|37||Alleviate||Defuse||Giảm nhẹ, giảm bớt|
|40||Continuous||Ongoing||Tiếp diễn, liên tiếp|